News: Specialized Press
Beyond the Dual Pathway Model: Evidence for the Dissociation of Timing, Inhibitory, and Delay-Related Impairments in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Source: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY. Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 345-355 / Date: April 2010 / Category: Specialized Press
Objective: The dual pathway model explains neuro-psychological heterogeneity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of dissociable cognitive and motivational deficits each affecting some but not other patients. We explore whether deficits in temporal processing might constitute a third dissociable neuropsychological component of ADHD.
Method: Nine tasks designed to tap three domains (inhibitory control, delay aversion and temporal processing) were administered to ADHD probands (n=71; ages 6 to 17 years), their siblings (n=71; 65 unaffected by ADHD) and a group of non-ADHD controls (n=50). IQ and working memory were measured.
Results: Temporal processing, inhibitory control and delay-related deficits represented independent neuropsychological components. ADHD children differed from controls on all factors. For ADHD patients, the co-occurrence of inhibitory, temporal processing and delay-related deficits was no greater than expected by chance with substantial groups of patients showing only one problem. Domain-specific patterns of familial co-segregation provided evidence for the validity of neuropsychological subgroupings.
Conclusion: The current results illustrate the neuropsychological heterogeneity in ADHD and initial support for a triple pathway model. The findings need to be replicated in larger samples.